Speech sound

From annawiki
Jump to: navigation, search

IPA

Links

Airstream

  • direction
    • egressive
    • ingressive
  • initiation
    • pulmonic
    • glottalic
    • lingual (velaric)
egressive ingressive
pulmonic pulmonic egressive pulmonic ingressive
glottalic glottalic egressive glottalic ingressive
lingual lingual egressive lingual ingressive

Manner

  • continuant (incomplete closure of the oral vocal tract)
    • subclasses
      • fricative
      • approximant ("frictionless continuant")
        • subclasses
          • vowel
  • sonorant (continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract)
    • contrast: obstruent
    • subclasses
      • approximant
        • subclasses
          • vowel
      • nasal
    • Note: does not contain fricative
  • obstruent (obstructing airflow, causing a strong gradient of air pressure in the vocal tract)
    • subclasses
      • stop ("plosive")
      • fricative
  • occlusive (blocking (occluding) airflow in the vocal tract, but not necessarily in the nasal tract)
    • oral occlusive (often voiceless, e.g.: /p/, /t/, /k/)
    • nasal occlusive (often voiced, e.g.: /m/ /n/)

Vowels

  • Height
    • close
    • mid
    • open
  • Backeness
    • front
    • central
    • back
  • Roundedness
    • round
    • unround