# Ma notation

## Overview

Ma notation is a notation of units, sounds and alike for human beings on the planet Earth.

## Why

### Maths

#### base 2

2 = 2^1

2 is the smallest value for the base in the operations of the hyperoperation sequence that result for b>2 and n>2 in increasing values for increasing n.

#### base 4

4 = 2^2 = 2*2 = 2+2 (exponentiation, multiplication, addition)

8 = 2^2^2

#### base 16

16 = 2^^2 (tetration)

### List

n
a b 0 1 2 3 4
1 0 1 1 0 1 1
1 1 2 2 1 1 1
1 2 3 3 2 1 1
1 3 4 4 3 1 1
2 0 1 2 0 1 2
2 1 2 3 2 2 2
2 2 3 4 4 4 16
2 3 4 5 6 8 134217728

### Cycles that fit with the above bases

#### Cycle 4

Soccer World Cups, Regional Cups, Olympic Summer Games have a 4 year cycle.

Elections in some countries have a 4 year cycle.

## Alphabet

### Features

Sound groups:

• nasal = 2
• nasal + plosive = 8
• nasal + plosive + fricative = 16

In each of the groups nasal, plosive, fricative, the order labial, coronal, dorsal is followed.

Until

• 9,
• 11,
• the Latin symbols have the value of the IPA, the symbols are pronounced similar in several languages
• 15,
• even positions are voiceless
• each voiceless is even
• uneven are voiced

### List

#### Consonants

Base N. IPA ILA Manner s/o Manner Place Voice Link
base 2 0 m M sonorant 0 NASAL 0/0 LABIAL/bilabial 1 Bilabial_nasal
base 2 1 n N sonorant 0 NASAL 1/3 CORONAL/alveolar 1 Alveolar_nasal
extra for base 4 2 p P obstruent 1 PLOSIVE/stop 0/0 LABIAL/bilabial 0 Voiceless_bilabial_plosive
extra for base 4 3 b B obstruent 1 PLOSIVE/stop 0/0 LABIAL/bilabial 1 Voiced_bilabial_plosive
extra for base 8 4 t T obstruent 1 PLOSIVE/stop 1/3 CORONAL/alveolar 0 Voiceless_alveolar_plosive
extra for base 8 5 d D obstruent 1 PLOSIVE/stop 1/3 CORONAL/alveolar 1 Voiced_alveolar_plosive
extra for base 8 6 k K obstruent 1 PLOSIVE/stop 2/8 DORSAL/velar 0 Voiceless_velar_plosive
extra for base 8 7 g G obstruent 1 PLOSIVE/stop 2/8 DORSAL/velar 1 Voiced_velar_plosive
extra for base 12 8 f F obstruent 3 FRICATIVE/Non-sibilant fricative 0/1 LABIAL/labio-dental 0 Voiceless_labiodental_fricative
extra for base 12 9 v V obstruent 3 FRICATIVE/Non-sibilant fricative 0/1 LABIAL/labio-dental 1 Voiced_labiodental_fricative
extra for base 12 10 s S obstruent 2 FRICATIVE/Sibilant fricative 1/3 CORONAL/alveolar 0 Voiceless_alveolar_sibilant
extra for base 12 11 z Z obstruent 2 FRICATIVE/Sibilant fricative 1/3 CORONAL/alveolar 1 Voiced_alveolar_sibilant
extra for base 16 12 ʃ C obstruent 2 FRICATIVE/Sibilant fricative 1/4 CORONAL/postalveolar 0 Voiceless_palato-alveolar_sibilant
extra for base 16 13 ʒ Y obstruent 2 FRICATIVE/Sibilant fricative 1/4 CORONAL/postalveolar 1 Voiced_palato-alveolar_sibilant
extra for base 16 14 ç Q obstruent 3 FRICATIVE/Non-sibilant fricative 2/7 DORSAL/palatal 0 Voiceless_palatal_fricative
extra for base 16 15 j J sonorant 4 APPROX (ʝ FRICATIVE) 2/7 DORSAL/palatal 1 Voiced_palatal_approximant
extra 16 x X obstruent 3 FRICATIVE/Non-sibilant fricative 2/8 DORSAL/velar 0 Voiceless_velar_fricative
extra 17 h H ? 3?4 (FRICATIVE) 4/12 LARYNGEAL/glottal 0 Voiceless_glottal_fricative
extra 18 r R ? 6 TRILL 1/3 CORONAL/alveolar 1 Voiced_alveolar_trill
extra 19 l L sonorant 8 LATERAL-APPROX 1/3 CORONAL/alveolar 1 Voiced_alveolar_lateral_approximant
extra 20 w W sonorant Approximant/(Co-articulated) 2/8 DORSAL/velar 1 Voiced_labio-velar_approximant

## Numeral system

### Grouping

Use grouping by 4 like in East Asia Myriad http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_numerals#Large_numbers

Also for the part after the hexadecimal separator http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOS:NUM#Delimiting_.28grouping_of_digits.29 has grouping by 3 (physics) and by 5 (maths). Unify these.

### Naming

For naming of larger numbers use something like

• 2^4 = 10^1 = tip
• 10^2 = pip
• 10^3 = bip
• 10^4 = tip
 (10^4)^1 NM^T^N 1 0000 (ni)tinum (n=1) (10^4)^2 NM^T^P 1 0000 0000 squared myriad pitinum (p=2) (10^4)^3 NM^T^B 1 0000 0000 0000 cubic myriad bitinum (b=3) (10^4)^4 NM^T^T 1 0000 0000 0000 0000 quartic myriad titinum (t=4)

Unit prefixes

• kilo-gram ~ niti-gram
• mega-gram ~ piti-gram
• niti-joule, piti-joule
• piti-byte

## Place

### Coordinates

#### Latitude

As degrees:

Ma ISO 6709 Comment
0.4 90° North Pole
0.3 67.5°
0.2 45°
0.1 22.5°
0 0 equator
-0.1 -22.5°
-0.2 -45°
-0.3 -22.5°
-0.4 -90° South Pole

#### Longitude

Longitudes run from 0 to 1 in westward direction.

Distance:

• 0x0.1 = 360°/16 = 22.5°
• 0x0.08 = 11.25°
• 0x0.2 = 45°

Positions:

Ma ISO 6709 in ° ISO 6709 Comment
.0 -168.75 -168°45' Umnak
.1 168.75
.2 146.25 Wilsons Promontory N.P., Tasmania
.3 123.75
.4 101.25
.5 78.75 Issyk Kul (Kyrgyzstan), Meerut, East of New Delhi (India), West of Sri Lanka
.6 56.25
.7 33.75 Krym, Lake Victoria
.8 11.25 11°15' Florence
.C -78.75 East of Panama Canal (Panama), West of Quito (Ecuador), Juan Fernandéz Islands (Chile)

### Compass direction

Hex English English acronym Level
.0 North N 1
.1 North-northeast NNE 4
.2 Northeast NE 3
.3 East-northeast ENE 4
.4 East E 2
.5 East-southeast ESE 4
.6 Southeast SE 3
.7 South-southeast SSE 4
.8 South S 1
.9 South-southwest SSW 4
.A Southwest SW 3
.B West-southwest WSW 4
.C West W 2
.D West-northwest WNW 4
.E Northwest NW 3
.F North-northwest NNW 4

## Time

Base unit: 1 earth day.

• 1 hexsec = 1 day / 2^16 = 24*60*60 sec / 2^16 = (86400/65536) sec = 1.318359375 sec

### Clock

Hex hexsec
(base 16 notation)
hexsec
(base 10 notation)
1 = 10000 = 65536 = 24 h
0.1 (hex hour) = 1000 = 4096 = 1 h 30 min
0.01 = 100 = 256 = 5 min 37.5 sec
0.001 (hex minute) = 10 = 16 21.09 sec
0.0001 (hex second) = 1 = 1 1.32 sec
0.c23 0.759 1 sec

Hex ISO 8601 Comment
.0100 00:05:37.5
.0200 00:11:15
.0400 00:22:30
.0800 00:45:00
.1000 01:30:00 1.5÷24 = 1÷16 = 0.1
.8000 12:00:00 12÷24 = 8÷16 = 0.8
.F000 22:30:00 22.5÷24 = 15÷16 = 0.F
.F800 23:15:00

### Epoch

Avoid negative year numbers for years since -53248 CE.

ISO (CE) Ma (base 10) Ma (base 16) Note
-53248 0 0
-49152 4096 1000 Start of the 1xxx-years. First four digit year in hex notation.
-13926 39322 999A starting with that year all 4-character hex notations until FFFF will include a letter and distinguish the notation from other systems of year notation.
-12288 40960 A000 Start of the Axxx-years. Starting with that year, all 4-character hex notations until FFFF will start with a letter and distinguish the notation even better from other systems of year notation.
-9558 45056 AAAA
-8192 45056 B000 Start of the Bxxx-years.
-4096 49152 C000 Start of the Cxxx-years.
0 53248 D000 Start of the Dxxx-years. Until 4095 CE all years start with the letter D.
1792 55040 D700
2000 55248 D7D0
2048 55296 D800
4096 57344 E000 Start of the Exxx-years.
10000 63248 F710 ISO calendar needs 5 digits.
12287 65535 FFFF the last year that can be expressed with 4 digits in hex notation.

The year starts on the day of the Northward equinox. The length of Northward equinox solar year is relatively stable in the time from 6000 BCE to 10000 CE at 47:37 to 49:20 in excess of 365 days and 5 hours. The other equinox and the solstice years are less stable.

That means, the year starts on what is mostly March 20 or 21 in ISO 8601.

### Frequency

Derived unit: 1/d

• 1Hz = 86400/d = 1.318359375 /md [m = milli 1/65536]
• 0x1/md = 0.75851851851 Hz
• 0x200/md = 388.361481481 Hz

### Pitch

ETS = Equal-tempered scale with A4=435.921023988 Hz, which is 0.99072959997 of ISO 16 defined A4=440 Hz.

A4@440 Hz : 440*(60*60*24) cycles per day = 38016000 cpd. That is 2^(25.1801034055) cpd, in hex notation 2^(0x19.2E1B41BC854E556FEB6CC2).

Ma 2^(...) Oscillation per day Oscillation per hexsec (day/65536) Hz ETS Midi approx
M0 0x0 2^0 = 0x1 2^(-16) = 0x0.0001 1/(60*60*24) = 0.00001157407 G-21
M1 0x1 2^1 = 0x2 2^(-15) = 0x0.0002 2^(-15)/(60*60*24) = G-20
M16 0x10 2^16 = 0x 1 0000 2^0 = 1 = 0x1 (2^16)/(60*60*24) = 0.75851851851 G-5
D19 0x13.6AAAA 2^19*2^(5/12) 2^3*2^(5/12)=10.6787188334 (2^19)/(60*60*24)*2^(5/12) = 8.10000598916 C-1 0
M20 0x14 2^20 = 0x 10 0000 2^4 = 16 = 0x10 (2^20)/(60*60*24) = 12.1362962963 G-1 7
D20 0x14.6AAAA 2^20*2^(5/12) 2^4*2^(5/12)=21.3574376667 (2^20)/(60*60*24)*2^(5/12) = 16.2000119783 C0 12
M21 0x15 2^21 = 0x 20 0000 2^5 = 32 = 0x20 (2^21)/(60*60*24) = 24.2725925926 G0 19
M22 0x16 2^22 = 0x 40 0000 2^6 = 64 = 0x40 (2^22)/(60*60*24) = 48.5451851852 G1 31
M23 0x17 2^23 = 0x 80 0000 2^7 = 128 = 0x80 (2^23)/(60*60*24) = 97.0903703704 G2 43
M24 0x18 2^24 = 0x 100 0000 2^8 = 256 = 0x100 (2^24)/(60*60*24) = 194.180740741 G3 55
M25 0x19 2^25 = 0x 200 0000 2^9 = 512 = 0x200 (2^25)/(60*60*24) = 388.361481481 G4 67
N25 0x19.15555 2^25*2^(1/12) 2^9*2^(1/12)=542.445104312 (2^25)/(60*60*24)*2^(1/12) = 411.4546569 Gis4/As4 68
P25 0x19.2AAAA 2^25*2^(2/12) 2^9*2^(2/12)=574.700568734 (2^25)/(60*60*24)*2^(2/12) = 435.921023988 A4 69
B25 0x19.4 2^25*2^(3/12)=2^(25.25) 2^9*2^(3/12)=2^(9.25)=608.874042881 (2^25)/(60*60*24)*2^(3/12) = 461.842236971 Ais4/Bes 70
T25 0x19.5555 2^25*2^(4/12)=2^(25.3333) 2^9*2^(4/12)=645.079577546 (2^25)/(60*60*24)*2^(4/12) = 489.304805487 B4/Ces4 71
D25 0x19.6AAAA 2^25*2^(5/12) 2^9*2^(5/12)=683.438005335 (2^25)/(60*60*24)*2^(5/12) = 518.400383306 Bis4/C5 72
K25 0x19.8 2^25*2^(6/12)=2^(25.5) 2^9*2^(6/12)=724.077343935 (2^25)/(60*60*24)*2^(6/12) = 549.226074214 Cis5/Des5 73
G25 2^25*2^(7/12) D5 74
F25 2^25*2^(8/12)=2^(25.6666) Dis/Es 75
V25 0x19.C 2^25*2^(9/12)=2^(25.75) E5/Fes 76
S25 2^25*2^(10/12) Eis/F 77
Z25 2^25*2^(11/12) Fis/Ges 78
M26 0x1A 2^26 = 0x 400 0000 2^10 = 1024 = 0x400 (2^26)/(60*60*24) = 776.722962963 G5 79
M30 0x1E 2^30 = 0x 4000 0000 2^14 = 16384 = 0x4000 (2^30)/(60*60*24) = 12427.5674074 G9 127
M31 0x1F 2^31 = 0x 8000 0000 2^15 = 32768 = 0x8000 (2^31)/(60*60*24) = 24855.1348148 G10
M32 0x20 2^32 = 0x1 0000 0000 2^16 = 65536 = 0x1 0000 (2^32)/(60*60*24) = 49710.2696296 G11

## Length

Base unit: 1 earth equator.

m = milli as 1/65536, k as 65536

• 0x1 Q = 40 075 000 meter
• 0x1 mQ ~ 611 meter
• 0x0.1 mQ ~ 38.21849 meter
• 0x0.01 mQ ~ 2.3886 meter
• 0x0.001 mQ ~ 0.14929 meter
• 0x0.0001 mQ ~ 0.009330688 meter ~ 9.33 mm = 0.933 cm
• 1 AU = 149597870700/40075000 Q = 3732.94749095 Q ~ 0xE95 Q
• 0x10000 Q = 1 kQ = 2.6263552e+12 m = 17.5561 AU
• 1 light-year = 9460730472580800 meter = 9460730472580800/40075000 Q = 236075620.027 Q = 3602.22808879 kQ ~ 0xE12 kQ
• MQ = 0x10000 kQ = 1.7212081e+17 m = 18.193184436 ly

## Speed

Equator moves with 1 Q/d, i.e. 611 meter/1.32 seconds ~ 463 m/s ~ 1670 km/h.

• .1 Q/d ~ 104 km/h
• .08 Q/d ~ 52 km/h
• .01 Q/d = 1 cQ/d ~ 6.52 km/h [c centi, as 1/256]

A precision 1 cQ/d should be sufficient for traffic signs, i.e. only two digits are needed.

Since 0.1 Q/d ~ 104 km/h, most signs will only need one digit. A speedometer in cars would count cQ/d [0.01 Q/d].

Light:

• 299792458*24*60*60/40075000 = 646339.822114 Q/d = 9.86236300832 kQ/d

## Chemical elements

Element symbols are derived from the atomic number. The numbers run from 1 to 118, the latter currently is the highest number of known elements.

118 in hex is 0x76, i.e. two digits are sufficient.