1971 Swadesh list

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1971 Swadesh list

Number, English word and Comment taken from English Wikipedia [1] compiled by Hans J. Holm 2011-04-20.


No. English word Comment Wikidata Q WOLD
1 I Pers.Pron.1.Sg. 49404 2.91
2 You 2.sg! 1952 thou & ye {{{2}}} 2.92
3 we 1955: inclusive {{{2}}} 2.941
4 this {{{2}}} 24.07
5 that {{{2}}} 24.08
6 who? “?” not 1971 {{{2}}}
7 what? “?” not 1971 {{{2}}}
8 not {{{2}}}
9 all of a number {{{2}}} 13.14
10 many {{{2}}} 13.15
11 one {{{2}}} 13.01
12 two {{{2}}} 13.02
13 big {{{2}}} 12.55
14 long not 'wide' {{{2}}} 12.57
15 small {{{2}}} 12.56
16 woman 467 2.22
17 man adult male human 8441 2.21
18 person individual human {{{2}}} 2.1
19 fish noun 152 3.65
20 bird 5113 3.581
21 dog 144 3.61
22 louse 6481228 3.99924
23 tree not log 10884 8.6
24 seed noun! {{{2}}} 8.311
25 leaf botanics {{{2}}} 8.56
26 root botanics {{{2}}} 8.54
27 bark of tree {{{2}}} 8.75
28 skin 1952: person’s {{{2}}} 4.12
29 flesh 1952 meat, flesh {{{2}}} 4.13 flesh, 5.61 meat
30 blood {{{2}}} 4.15
31 bone {{{2}}} 4.16
32 grease 1952: fat, organic substance {{{2}}}
33 egg {{{2}}} 5.97
34 horn of bull etc., not 1952*7 {{{2}}}
35 tail {{{2}}}
36 feather large, not down {{{2}}}
37 hair on head of humans {{{2}}}
38 head anatomic {{{2}}}
39 ear {{{2}}}
40 eye {{{2}}}
41 nose {{{2}}}
42 mouth {{{2}}}
43 tooth front, rather than molar {{{2}}}
44 tongue anatomical {{{2}}}
45 claw not in 1952*6 {{{2}}}
46 foot not leg {{{2}}}
47 knee not 1952*5 37425
48 hand 33767
49 belly lower part of body, abdomen {{{2}}}
50 neck not nape! {{{2}}}
51 breasts female; 1955 still breast*8 {{{2}}}
52 heart 1072
53 liver {{{2}}}
54 drink verb {{{2}}}
55 eat verb {{{2}}}
56 bite verb {{{2}}}
57 see verb {{{2}}}
58 hear verb {{{2}}}
59 know facts {{{2}}}
60 sleep verb {{{2}}}
61 die verb {{{2}}}
62 kill verb {{{2}}}
63 swim verb {{{2}}}
64 fly verb {{{2}}}
65 walk verb {{{2}}}
66 come verb {{{2}}}
67 lie on side, recline {{{2}}}
68 sit verb {{{2}}}
69 stand verb {{{2}}}
70 give verb {{{2}}}
71 say verb*1 {{{2}}}
72 sun {{{2}}}
73 moon not 1952*2 {{{2}}}
74 star {{{2}}}
75 water noun {{{2}}} 1.31
76 rain noun, 1952 verb {{{2}}} 1.75
77 stone {{{2}}} 1.44
78 sand opposite to following {{{2}}} 1.215
79 earth =soil {{{2}}} 1.212
80 cloud not fog {{{2}}} 1.73
81 smoke noun, of fire {{{2}}}
82 fire {{{2}}}
83 ash(es) {{{2}}}
84 burn verb intr.! {{{2}}}
85 path 1952 road, trail; not street {{{2}}}
86 mountain not hill 8502
87 red colour 3142
88 green colour 3133
89 yellow colour 943
90 white colour 23444
91 black colour 23445
92 night 575
93 hot adjective; 1952 warm, of weather {{{2}}}
94 cold of weather {{{2}}}
95 full *4 {{{2}}}
96 new {{{2}}}
97 good {{{2}}}
98 round not 1952*3 {{{2}}}
99 dry substance! {{{2}}}
100 name 82799

Note *6 "Claw" was only added in 1955, but again replaced by many well-known specialists with (finger)nail, because expressions for "claw" are not available in many old, died-out, or lesser known languages.